Augsburg Confession of Faith presented to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Written by Philip Melanchthon and representing the views of the early Lutheran reformation, it took a strong stand on the necessity of justification by faith alone. Hopes that the emperor would sign the confession were dashed when he commissioned traditionalists to respond and then declared their response a sufficient confutation of the confession. After this point, it became increasingly clear that the emperor had no intention of tolerating religious dissent. Though the Augsburg Confession was originally written for a very specific political situation, it remains normative for confessional Lutherans to the present day.